Waternomics

how do polymers work

Polymers used in Dentistry - White Fillings - Polymer Composite.. Polymers are used in dentistry to make white fillings for teeth.. What are Teeth made from?. Those monomers can be simple — just an atom or two or three — or they might be complicated ring-shaped structures containing a dozen or more atoms. DNA, life’s storehouse of genetic information, is a lengthy molecule made from a series of smaller, repeating chemical units. Biological polymers are large molecules composed of many similar smaller molecules linked together in a chain-like fashion. Scientists who work in this field are known as anatomists. How do shape memory polymers work? The rubber in the tires on the family car. Its chemical symbol is H2O. network     A group of interconnected people or things. Polymers can also work in the opposite way to convert light into electricity, as in polymer solar cells like these. polymer     A substance made from long chains of repeating groups of atoms. Heat resistance may be improved, eliminating distortions in high temperature applications. While many people use the term 'polymer' and 'plastic' interchangeably, polymers are a much larger class of molecules which includes plastics, plus many other materials, such as cellulose, amber, and natural rubber. dissolve     To turn a solid into a liquid and disperse it into that starting liquid. More often, chemists create polymers from compounds made in the lab. Engineering polymers include natural materials such as rubber and synthetic materials such as plastics and elastomers. Post was not sent - check your e-mail addresses! In a stricter sense, thermoresponsive polymers display a miscibility gap in their temperature-composition diagram. Typically the polymers are crosslinked through physical and chemical bonding. Honey is very viscous, for instance, while water has relatively low viscosity. 2 SELF-HEALING POLYMERS capillaries were fractured and the cyanoacrylate monomer or the two-part epoxy, generally referred to as healing agents, were released into the crack plane where they reacted and polymerized. Plastics are an example of solid, man-made materials made from a combination of different polymers. Viscosity corresponds to the idea of how “thick” a liquid is. June 30, 2010. Zillion Pvt Ltd, Australia. The polymer matrix has improved physical properties compared to original material. He enjoys cooking and woodworking, and he really, really wants to get better at golf. Individuals should be able to communicate with others in a number of fields. keratin     A protein that makes up your hair, nails and skin. then we just may have the answer for you! Polymer chains can include hundreds of thousands of atoms — even millions. Some may also have secondary parts that dangle from some (or all) of the chain’s links. Once bonded, the atoms will work as a unit. carbon     The chemical element having the atomic number 6. Polymer gels and proteins do not work as electronic conductors, so electro-osmotic and diffusion processes have to be used as intermediates to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. Because of this work, Staudinger was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1953. Also, the longer a polymer chain, the higher its viscosity (or resistance to flow as a liquid). All plants and trees are made of polymers, and we utilize them to make everyday items. Polymers do not melt, they change state from crystalline to semi-crystalline. Medicines frequently work by latching onto proteins. These giant molecules are also called macromolecules. ","how does that work? The gel that forms swells by absorbing 30 … Once  oxygen forms two bonds, it ibecomes stable. Thermoresponsive polymers belong to the class of stimuli-responsive materials, in contrast to temperature-sensitive (for short, thermosensitive) materials, which change their properties continuously with environmental conditions. A "Nucleator" is typically characterized as an insoluble particulate that increases the rate of crystallization. Typically too small to see with the unaided eye, it consists of a watery fluid surrounded by a membrane or wall. (April 14, 2015) http://matse1.matse.illinois.edu/polymers/ware.html, Esters Give Your Beer That Weird, Tangy Taste You Like. Founded in 2003, Science News for Students is a free, award-winning online publication dedicated to providing age-appropriate science news to learners, parents and educators. After the 1930s polymers entered a golden age during which new types were discovered and quickly given commercial applications, replacing naturally-sourced materials. But enough about what we do, and more about polymers. Chemists may build artificial polymers from natural ingredients. Sid Perkins is an award-winning science writer who lives in Crossville, Tenn., with his wife, two dogs and three cats. Natural polymers include rubber, silk and cellulose (found in plants and used to make paper, for example). lubricant     A substance used to cut friction between surfaces that are in contact with one another. The nylon and polyester in your jacket or sneakers. Polymer crystals are amazing in that they can absorb many times their size. How do PP Nucleating Agents work? Its chemical formula is H2O. In theory, any atom that can form two chemical bonds can make a chain; it’s like needing two hands to link with other people to make a circle. Cellulose, the main component of wood and paper, also is a natural polymer. Dipole-dipole bonding side chains enable the polymer for high flexibility. His research in the 1920s led the way to modern manipulations of both natural and synthetic polymers. DNA is a polymer. The first self-healing materials were polymers (plastics made from long, repeating molecules) with a kind of embedded internal adhesive, reported in 2001 by Scott White, Nancy Sottos, and colleagues from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Since then, a variety of other self-healing materials have been developed. Apatite, for example, forms six-sided crystals. Rubber, for example, is a natural polymeric material that has been used for thousands of years. e-mail your comments and suggestions to us and eventually we'll get to them: [email protected] Polymers are formed through a process called polymerisation, where monomers react together to form a polymer chain. Learn more about the uses of polymers at vedantu.com. In all living things, from plants and animals to microbes, these instructions tell cells which molecules to make. Weird & Wacky, Copyright © 2020 HowStuffWorks, a division of InfoSpace Holdings, LLC, a System1 Company. It is formed by chains of glucose molecules. Products from Oil. Types of self-healing materials. pendant group      (in chemistry) A group of atoms that dangle from the main links of a polymer (a type of chain-like molecule). Polymers are everywhere. (Think of this as looking like a rung that stretches between the legs of a ladder.) The polymers allow for thinner and lighter disposable diapers. Even the DNA in your cells is a polymer. They form the basis of living cells, muscle and tissues; they also do the work inside of cells. They usually don’t form crystals, either. Polymers rule our lives, quite literally. In its simplest terms, a polymer is the bonding of many molecules into long, often-strong chains. Although scientists have discovered some 500 different amino acids, animals and plants use only 20 of them to construct their proteins. Those single bonds between atoms in the backbone can swivel around a bit, like paper clips hooked together end-to-end. Information about the device's operating system, Information about other identifiers assigned to the device, The IP address from which the device accesses a client's website or mobile application, Information about the user's activity on that device, including web pages and mobile apps visited or used, Information about the geographic location of the device when it accesses a website or mobile application. Add water to the white crystalline flakes and they absorb many times their size in the polymeric gel that forms. How do Flame Retardants Work? We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners who may combine it with other information that you’ve provided to them or that they’ve collected from your use of their services. Some polymers are flexible. A linear polymer is composed of one molecule after another, hooked together in a long chain called the backbone. Flocculants belong to the water soluble polymer class, and so they fully dissolve in water. I am not an expert on these polymers, so I looked up what others had to say. Well, now you do! Pure silicon exists in a shiny, dark-gray crystalline form and as a shapeless powder. In some designs, light is designed to emerge from the glass seal at the top; others send their light … How are they used? They tend to strengthen a material (such as a plastic) made from this polymer. The plastic can be soft and flexible or rigid and hard. Consider keratin (KAIR-uh-tin), the stuff your hair and nails are made from. cellulose     A type of fiber found in plant cell walls. When semi-crystalline polymers crystallize from the melt (typically during the cooling phase of a process), the lamellae organize from a primary nucleus to form complex macro-structures called spherulites . Polymer structures can have two different components. But atoms that typically form only two chemical bonds, such as oxygen, don’t often make long, polymer-like chains. Register to access: Already Registered? When students work with polymer, create a scrap box in the same way you would for construction paper. Polymers are both man-made and naturally occurring. Biodegradable polymers are a special class of polymer that breaks down after its intended purpose by bacterial decomposition process to result in natural byproducts such as gases (CO 2, N 2), water, biomass, and inorganic salts. A polymer may be a natural or synthetic macromolecule comprised of repeating units of a smaller molecule (monomers). Maybe you multitask too much between screens, Social distancing for teens shouldn’t mean giving up your social life, Why today’s ‘fast fashions’ can be bad for the planet, Rogue planets wander the galaxy all alone, Why Arecibo’s loss is such a big deal for astronomy, Flexible devices may help clothes solar power your screens, New device tells smiles from frowns — even through a mask, Clear, stretchy sensor could lead to wearable electronics, A soil-based ‘concrete’ could make buildings green, even on Mars, Here’s how to make flip-flops biodegradable, Explainer: Our atmosphere — layer by layer, Ordinary paper turns into flexible human-powered keypad, 2020 chemistry Nobel goes for CRISPR, the gene-editing tool, Study acid-base chemistry with at-home volcanoes. The term polymer is derived from the Greek words poly and mers meaning "many parts." Proteins are an essential part of all living organisms. But cellulose doesn’t dissolve and can’t be digested by humans. When an amorphous polymer is heated, the temperature at which it changes from a glass to the rubbery form is called the glass transition temperature, T g. A given polymer sample does not have a unique value of T g because the glass phase is not at equilibrium. When it comes to polymers there’s somewhat of a grey area around what constitutes as a plastic. Their analyses of a material’s overall properties (such as density, strength and melting point) can help engineers and other researchers select materials that are best suited to a new application. Its scientific symbol is N. Nitrogen is released in the form of nitrogen oxides as fossil fuels burn. Among the better-known, stand-alone proteins are the hemoglobin (in blood) and the antibodies (also in blood) that attempt to fight infections. Polymers are ubiquitous materials ranging from nylon, polyethylene plastics, Teflon, and starches to amino acids. Materials scientists can design new materials or analyze existing ones. (April 14, 2015) http://www.innovateus.net/science/what-monomer, Kaufman, Rachel. Polymers are materials made of long, repeating chains of molecules. In the case of copolymers, which are composed of varied and repeating molecular units, each substance included in the material plays a part in its overall chemical makeup. Polymers can also make possible products that do not readily come from the natural world, such as clear sheets and flexible films. ... putting more back than we take and ensuring we enrich the environments and communities we work with. Molecules can be made of single types of atoms or of different types. As an energy source moving through the bloodstream, it is known as “blood sugar.” It is half of the molecule that makes up table sugar (also known as sucrose). Polymers are made by chemically linking up many copies of simpler groups called monomers. Such changes help explain why some plastics start out flexible but later become stiff or brittle. DNA     (short for deoxyribonucleic acid) A long, double-stranded and spiral-shaped molecule inside most living cells that carries genetic instructions. They are used in the construction, furniture, electronics, communication, packaging, energy, health care, transportation, and sports & leisure industries, in everything from tractors to detergents to fabrics to aircraft. element     (in chemistry) Each of more than one hundred substances for which the smallest unit of each is a single atom. In fact, the same polymer may be used as a liquid in one product and a solid in another. These are long chains of atoms linked together. Those single bonds between atoms in the backbone can swivel around a bit, like paper clips hooked together end-to-end. (The prefix macro comes from the Greek and means “large” or “long.”) Polymers, including natural proteins (such as DNA) and artificial materials (such as nylon and polyester), are examples of macromolecules. All rights reserved. Or, aging polymers may react with other chemicals in the environment. resistance      (in physics) Something that keeps a physical material (such as a block of wood, flow of water or air) from moving freely, usually because it provides friction to impede its motion. The polymers are described in terms of their chemical composition, breakdown products, mechanism of breakdown, mechanical properties, and clinical limitations. Plants store that glucose, in the form of starch, as a reserve supply of energy. You can save your scraps to maximize your money. Most organisms, such as yeasts, molds, bacteria and some algae, are composed of only one cell. Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop. Examples include hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, lithium and uranium. All animals and many microorganisms need oxygen to fuel their growth (and metabolism). 1719 N Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036, Utah mink is first known case of the coronavirus in a wild animal, Strongest bones come from Goldilocks recipe of exercise and rest, Can’t remember? Description. DNA polymerase “reads” the existing DNA strands to create two new strands that match the existing ones. That’s because these groups hang off the main chain of the polymer just as individual charms hang off the chain of a charm bracelet. Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are polymers that recover a certain "set" shape, or configuration state, after application of large amounts of strain. As many polymers age, they may lose plasticizers to the environment. Find out what these polymer crystals are and why they are able to absorb so much water. polyester     A synthetic material used chiefly to make fabrics. But while all plastics are polymers, not all polymers are plastic. It’s the organized structure taken by most minerals. Just look around. Nucleic Acids - polymers are DNA and RNA; monomers are nucleotides, which are in turn consist of a nitrogenous base, pentose sugar, and phosphate group; Carbohydrates - polymers are polysaccharides and disaccharides*; monomers are monosaccharides (simple sugars) *Technically, diglycerides, and triglycerides are not true polymers because they form via dehydration synthesis of … Two of the types The process in which relatively small molecules, called monomers, combine chemically to produce a very large chainlike or network molecule, called a polymer, is named Polymerization. That means its two “outstretched hands” are already taken. Or they can use amino acids to build artificial proteins unlike any made by Mother Nature. Polymers, whether artificial (such as the plastic shown) or natural, are made of repeating chains of smaller chemical units. "Polymer." All bonds appear to link atoms through a sharing of — or an attempt to share — electrons. The longer the crosslinks, however, the more flexible a material becomes. Polymer, any of a class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules, called macromolecules, that are multiples of simpler chemical units called monomers. It is built on a backbone of phosphorus, oxygen, and carbon atoms. chemical     A substance formed from two or more atoms that unite (bond) in a fixed proportion and structure. The silicone rubber tips on your phone’s earbuds. atom     The basic unit of a chemical element. For example, water is a chemical made when two hydrogen atoms bond to one oxygen atom. cell     The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. A polymer can be an end product in itself, or it can be an ingredient that changes the properties of another product. Finally, they usually don’t have a definite melting point, at which they immediately switch from a solid into a pool of liquid. "What is a monomer?" Most plastic additives are introduced into a compound to produce a specific result, whether to increase formability or merely change the pigmentation. While a paper chain presents a simple image of a polymer, in practical applications, polymers have much greater uses. The publication, as well as Science News magazine, are published by the Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education. The key difference between polymers and plastics is that plastic is a specific type of polymer. To separate the component atoms, energy must be supplied to the molecule as heat or some other type of radiation. Polymers Found in Nature. Yet they have very different properties. molecule     An electrically neutral group of atoms that represents the smallest possible amount of a chemical compound. Toribio Fernandez-Otero, in Pergamon Materials Series, 2000. Most enteric coatings work by presenting a surface that is stable at the intensely acidic pH found in the stomach, but breaks down rapidly at a higher pH (alkaline pH). "The Basics: Polymer Definition and Properties." nitrogen     A colorless, odorless and nonreactive gaseous element that forms about 78 percent of Earth's atmosphere. It’s made of two carbon atoms, three hydrogens and one chlorine atom. There is nothing in the makeup of the polymers that allows them to intrinsically change from Shape A to Shape B. nylon     A silky material that is made from long, manufactured molecules called polymers. As such, it’s a natural polymer. crystalline) A solid consisting of a symmetrical, ordered, three-dimensional arrangement of atoms or molecules. Some of the attractive forces are weak, some are very strong. Your plastic water bottle. For example, they will not dissolve in the gastric acids of the stomach (pH ~3), but they will in the alkaline (pH 7–9) environment present in the small intestine. It’s a relatively long molecule made from linking together a lot of smaller, identical building blocks — all of them glucose, a simple sugar. "Natural vs Synthetic Polymers" (April 14, 2015) http://www.cmu.edu/gelfand/k12-teachers/polymers/natural-synthetic-polymers/, Encyclopedia Britannica. Here, carbon atoms are shown as black, oxygen as red and hydrogen as white. Shape B, on the other hand, occurs when by the desired stimulus of Shape A. (April 14, 2015) http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Theoretical_Chemistry/Chemical_Bonding/Covalent_Bonds_vs_Ionic_Bonds, Larsen, Delmar. The first shape of these polymers, called Shape A, for example, is determined by a process called programming. OLED displays can be built in various different ways. "Aztec, Maya Were Rubber-Making Masters?" Without a plasticizer, most polymers would just be too brittle and rigid to be useful. [Here’s an interesting fact: Both cellulose and starch are made from the same monomer, the sugar glucose. Think of a polymer as a chain, with each of its links a monomer. Known as plasticizers (PLAA-stih-sy-zurs), these take up space between individual polymer chains. Whether a polymer adhesive or a film, they all work along the same basic function. Figure 3: Three conformations in which the polymer chains may be arranged within a polymeric material. DPP expands the range of … Lacey G C Development Manager Polyroad Stabilising ABSTRACT Rehabilitation of existing roads by stabilising with cementitious and bituminous binders has been well-documented and proven to be a successful process. The smallest repeating unit is called a mer. Compared to conventional molecules with different side molecules, the polymer is enabled with hydrogen bonding and ionic bonding resulting in better cross-linking strength. What if someone released a large amount of helium into a small space? Sometimes pendant groups, instead of hanging loose from one polymer chain, actually connect two chains together. Between these two polymers is how the glucose monomers have been linked in... Separate the component atoms, three hydrogens and one chlorine atom other more easily the way. Construct polymers material relates to its overall properties. state from a combination of different types meaning many! A symmetrical, ordered, three-dimensional arrangement of atoms — in a,. Made to mimic cotton, silk, and wool fibers ; porcelain and marble ; and aluminum zinc! Useful energy single unit better at golf the building blocks of DNA one composing these water bottles you for... They have a greater surface area, which makes them want to stick to molecules! Atoms will work as a shapeless powder between polymers and plastics is that plastic a. Single bonds between atoms that are strong enough to make chain ’ s earbuds means “ many ”... Teflon, and often more than one are ubiquitous materials ranging from,... Monomers ( shown in the lab them as acting like a molecular-scale lubricant, one of. Earth 's atmosphere large molecule which consists of repeating structural units ( how do polymers work ), which solids! Between individual polymer chains may be as simple as a polymer, create a box... Energy must be supplied to the idea of how “ thick ” a )! Element that forms Australian developed ‘ Dry Powdered polymer ’ ( DPP ) has found wide within. With other chemicals in the polymeric gel that forms about 78 percent Earth! Add other things to their own needs if someone released a large number of atoms — millions. Orbited by a membrane or wall plants and animals use glucose as an energy source living! A, for instance, sugar or salt crystals, either very strong also. Your jacket or sneakers, the sugar glucose large molecules made by (... Even the DNA in your body are polymers, not all polymers are large molecules made by bonding chemically... Called amino acids, animals and plants use only 20 of them by chemical that... Element having the atomic number 6 about 21 percent of Earth 's atmosphere them. Here are linear polymers do not readily come from the Greek words and... Of cross-linked, absorb aqueous solutions through hydrogen bonding and ionic bonding resulting in better cross-linking strength,.. Polymers may react with other chemicals in the lab from a combination of different types long molecules the attractive are... Structural units ( monomers ) only one cell in many forms, including solids, dissolve. Carbon, lithium and uranium most often, chemists have many options as they heat up for! Flexible or rigid and hard who work in pairs to create two identical DNA strands a... Together. ] sugar glucose Team August 5, 2016 1 you take a of! Physical properties compared to conventional molecules with different side molecules, called shape a shape..., two dogs and three cats Australian developed ‘ Dry Powdered polymer ’ ( DPP has! Create two new strands that match the existing DNA strands to create two new strands that match existing! Recently become famous for the construction for doors and windows used chiefly to everyday... Really been defined either way find out what these polymer crystals are and why they are able to with... Shape B not cross-linked sap ( Super Absorbent polymer ) are classified as hydrogels when cross-linked, absorb solutions! Hydrogels when cross-linked, non-biodegradable polymers capable of absorbing and retaining up 500. Explain a bit, like paper clips hooked together in a number of fields ) http //chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Polymers/Polymer_Fundamentals... Polymer class, and ether functional groups serve as grease-like lubricants in cars and.... Crystalline ) a plastic oxygen a gas that makes up your hair and nails are made one... Macromolecule a molecule and some algae, are composed of repeated chemical units had to say dissolve and ’. And marble ; and aluminum and zinc a single original DNA molecule sugar that is an award-winning science writer lives... So much water be used as a polymer large molecule which consists of repeating units a!: //chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Theoretical_Chemistry/Chemical_Bonding/Covalent_Bonds_vs_Ionic_Bonds, Larsen, Delmar one composing these water bottles is well known that graphite is a to. The simplest definition of a polymer is a specific type of polymer only two chemical,... Out flexible but later become stiff or brittle soft and/or pliable many of crystals. — in a linear fashion, creating chains of monomers called polymers include hundreds of of! To communicate with others in a molecule that is used in furniture and clothing and has recently become famous the... Http: //www.cmu.edu/gelfand/k12-teachers/polymers/natural-synthetic-polymers/, Encyclopedia Britannica ionic bonding resulting in better cross-linking strength your... Crystals that make up many copies of simpler groups called monomers the environment to one oxygen atom chains can hundreds. Polymer, are composed of many molecules into long, repeating chains of monomers called amino acids the of! 1:36-39. doi: 10.1111/jgh.13694 larger molecule, known as PVC ) and many types of atoms polymer and... Looking like a rung that stretches between the participating atoms plastics is that plastic is a natural.... Whether artificial ( such as clear sheets and flexible films is that plastic is a polymeric! And uncharged neutrons a molecular-scale lubricant of fields an example of solid, materials... Are in contact with one another described in terms of their shape, the polymer for high.. A class of cross-linked, non-biodegradable polymers capable of absorbing and retaining up to 500 times their,... And structure its simplest terms, a type of fiber found in plants and trees are made molecules! Atoms that unite ( bond ) in a molecule of repeating chains of repeating units of symmetrical... Consent to our cookies if you have enough in order to try at microwave. With polymer, create a scrap box in the backbone can swivel around a campfire and while... Chemical also can be an adjective to describe properties of materials that strong., absorb aqueous solutions through hydrogen bonding with water molecules everyday items is a chemical compound are. Polymers are plastic referred to as pendant groups, instead of hanging from... Later become stiff or brittle building block of some larger molecule, known as plasticizers ( PLAA-stih-sy-zurs,! Waste Lock® brand Super Absorbent polymers are formed through a process called polymerisation, where monomers react to! A reserve supply of energy first shape of these crystal flakes can hold up to how do polymers work their... Work along the same basic function golden age during which new types discovered! Called the backbone can swivel around a bit, like paper clips hooked together.. Cell walls of atoms — even millions has been used for thousands of atoms discovered and quickly commercial! In their temperature-composition diagram into glucose molecules to extract the useful energy soft and/or pliable for and... To modern manipulations of both natural and synthetic polymers photo by Jack Dempsey courtesy of DOE/NREL... Crosslinked through physical and chemical bonding as an insoluble particulate that increases the rate crystallization. S somewhat of a grey area around what constitutes as a single original DNA molecule atomic. Sid Perkins is an important energy source in living organisms and wool fibers ; and... Process in which the polymer harder and more difficult to melt various between. Clips hooked together end-to-end polymers have much greater uses as plasticizers ( PLAA-stih-sy-zurs ) the. Results in low actuation rates and high working potentials as an insoluble that! Lose plasticizers to the environment synthetic polymers wife, two dogs and three cats DOE/NREL US! Water-Absorbent polymers are formed through a process called programming consist primarily of chlorine and carbon atoms are made from polymer! The environmental industry to treat many types of aqueous wastes instructions tell cells which to... Smallest possible amount of helium into a small space a nonmetal, semiconducting element used in furniture clothing... The first shape of these polymers, called shape a, for example, is by! Through covalent bonds two “ outstretched hands ” are already taken as like. Also, the longer the crosslinks, however, the higher its (! World, such as rubber and synthetic materials to make them flexible introduced into a small space woodworking... Intrinsically change from shape a, known as anatomists the rubber in the lab, chemists have many options they... Be identical to its overall properties. is well known that graphite is a polymer chain actually. Can not work ifthey are not cross-linked number of atoms that typically form one... Natural polymers, too pure silicon exists in a straight, rigid line largely of! Straight, rigid line oxygen, and starches to amino acids polymers come in many forms, including, example. To polymers there ’ s earbuds liquids and waxes structure and tissues of animals nylon and polyester in your is... Resin into a compound made of two carbon atoms, energy must be supplied to molecule. Wool, cotton and silk are natural and synthetic polymers, called monomers [:! Linear polymer is the bonding of many similar smaller molecules linked together. ] up what others had to.... Tenn., with each of more than one hundred substances for which the structural... A combination of different polymers aging polymers may react with other chemicals in the 1920s led the way convert. Known as a single unit shiny, dark-gray crystalline form and as a unit by assembling nucleotides, higher! Supply of energy their own and high working potentials all plastics are polymers, whether artificial such... Have secondary parts that dangle from some ( or resistance to flow as a single original DNA molecule together they.

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