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border irrigation pdf

0000014735 00000 n 171 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 173 /H [ 1047 362 ] /L 466824 /E 70015 /N 9 /T 463285 >> endobj xref 171 31 0000000016 00000 n It is by far the most common form of irrigation throughout the world and has been practiced in many areas virtually unchanged for thousands of years.. 0000001387 00000 n H��UK��0�����c�c����T��^V=���RHyt���c��q�"E����1�6q�E��� &�1��m81�qI�(�U1M���&�_�qǎ�p���T���}����9/1�� `������"�H��`.�P|Zz��eQ�m����+~E�W��������\#��ɜ����1�<7m^���{�R%e��,US��-_��lꇰ 9_hpn_jT�������cJms�c� .��rh����P$z�j��9a� =qȁG�4�HE-�&�/�N%�� �1��%��DS�E�Q��N@-@:��L�%�����������Tf�d̪Tq�sX�� �*�+gͣ�7���Gn4K)��]_�/W��8\��F�W� border irrigation method. The general difference is that basin irrigation involves applying water to a nearly level field and may include ponding for extended time periods. M���t@$�9"�� {�l5[��o��r`�یm%KY��;(��f�K��)W�KRI��,I�ո�i�rF[7��,,�zBk�J���Ą���ѻ.sa�#����4ޜێ+r�Z)3��}A&�o�?U#j��5�о��L8˥�æ�����Մ�L��W� ���R endstream endobj 182 0 obj 780 endobj 183 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /ArialMT /FontBBox [ -250 -250 1072 1000 ] /Flags 32 /CapHeight 724 /Ascent 905 /Descent 212 /StemV 80 /ItalicAngle 0 /XHeight 506 /Leading 33 /AvgWidth 441 /MaxWidth 1294 >> endobj 184 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FirstChar 0 /LastChar 255 /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 185 0 R /Widths [ 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 250 333 555 500 500 1000 833 278 333 333 500 570 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 570 570 570 500 930 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 778 722 556 667 722 722 1000 722 722 667 333 278 333 581 500 333 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 556 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 394 220 394 520 778 500 778 333 500 500 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 1000 778 667 778 778 333 333 500 500 350 500 1000 333 1000 389 333 722 778 444 722 250 333 500 500 500 500 220 500 333 747 300 500 570 333 747 500 400 549 300 300 333 576 540 250 333 300 330 500 750 750 750 500 722 722 722 722 722 722 1000 722 667 667 667 667 389 389 389 389 722 722 778 778 778 778 778 570 778 722 722 722 722 722 611 556 500 500 500 500 500 500 722 444 444 444 444 444 278 278 278 278 500 556 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 556 556 556 556 500 556 500 ] >> endobj 185 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FontBBox [ -250 -250 1089 1000 ] /Flags 34 /CapHeight 712 /Ascent 891 /Descent 216 /StemV 136 /ItalicAngle 0 /XHeight 498 /Leading 42 /AvgWidth 427 /MaxWidth 1273 >> endobj 186 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /BaseFont /ArialMT /FirstChar 0 /LastChar 255 /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 183 0 R /Widths [ 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 278 278 355 556 556 889 667 191 333 333 389 584 278 333 278 278 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 278 278 584 584 584 556 1015 667 667 722 722 667 611 778 722 278 500 667 556 833 722 778 667 778 722 667 611 722 667 944 667 667 611 278 278 278 469 556 333 556 556 500 556 556 278 556 556 222 222 500 222 833 556 556 556 556 333 500 278 556 500 722 500 500 500 334 260 334 584 750 556 750 222 556 333 1000 556 556 333 1000 667 333 1000 750 611 750 750 222 222 333 333 350 556 1000 333 1000 500 333 944 750 500 667 278 333 556 556 556 556 260 556 333 737 370 556 584 333 737 552 400 549 333 333 333 576 537 278 333 333 365 556 834 834 834 611 667 667 667 667 667 667 1000 722 667 667 667 667 278 278 278 278 722 722 778 778 778 778 778 584 778 722 722 722 722 667 667 611 556 556 556 556 556 556 889 500 556 556 556 556 278 278 278 278 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 549 611 556 556 556 556 500 556 500 ] >> endobj 187 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 182 0 R >> stream 0000006044 00000 n �� �j����d�]�V���6����dm?l}8�}I�XJVVF�E��c_�,7�k���0���U/p�TD�]mk�������v�Z�| �`ّ�D���LxPB��y.���n����R�ŵg�^wn!��J���4b�����B4�|sr�LD��x&s��/P*���u�t'e�Jp����A��2� ����Y岙u��؁�7���fk�^��۳ �����sw �@�HYW0��d�&�­�y��%�%���8�ΰȿ°��͔���W7[F�X���4�� u�p��B�X���Z�/��M�Ɲz��,�D��iΫz��ɢ��ݖ�~��*^xIj:`�����7�w�Gs��%��H��-�'� > stream Border strip irrigation (or simply ‘border irrigation’) is a controlled surface flooding method of applying irrigation water. 0000005214 00000 n Principles of surface irrigation border check furrow (and bed) contour In your workbook, complete activity 1 on the important principles of The field slope between dikes Readily accessible irrigation data were collected from State To optimize the design of border and check basin irrigation in the slopping land, field dimensions, slope and soil informa- tion were collected from 3 blocks of langha watershed of The most favorable soil for borders is a free-working loam several feet deep, underlain by a more or less impervious subsoil. H��y�O��-3r�q�}��F�c����l$�>�)�u� MO�'Bz�����0�&9��4�Z����҇��Y��-�� hq0�=8�0�l n������8w���2{����������a��b�V13!>��s w �ڊRL���-�~����EW�ԡVI�(]�Y�_�4�{V�.�n&�Y?���li����P��o5��=���HI� �Lf>�N�V��y�����k�viy�F��*�CPD�C6!J)N �߇n��b��j��o�? Figure 4 illustrates a typical border configuration in which a field is divided into sloping borders. YӍ��� agronomy Article Comparison of Water- and Nitrogen-Use E ciency over Drip Irrigation with Border Irrigation Based on a Model Approach Yahui Wang 1, Sien Li 1,*, Hao Liang 2, Kelin Hu 3, Shujing Qin 1 and Hui Guo 1 1 Center for Agricultural Water Research in China, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China; yahuilan@163.com (Y.W. 0000009858 00000 n Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. This study aims to simulate border irrigation systems using the SIRMOD (surface irrigation simulation, evaluation and design, developed by Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA) software package under open- and closed-end conditions. This is the goal of efficient irrigation: to ensure the greatest amount of water that is delivered to the farm is used by the crop rather than being lost to groundwater or off the farm as drainage. The strip Lr���\���,W`L-ʶ�ؔi�!��m�#2��d�L�E��"3l�Y��[d�-2� �r@ʶ��d��@vb�g��adB\|pٿ>����^��/3�+�6\��Kjc�?���F@��1������oN���/�)���y*�1�nͿWqj�$�����!��Tu��H U������{�߱��mx0e�=�J�q�°�f��t#���J���?�ߔ;u��gW�+ 0000004296 00000 n Water is released at the field's high end and the borders guide the water down the slope as a shallow sheet that spreads out uniformly. Surface Irrigation Methods. osf83�C�{.����^/�KNUa(�@��_w�2�֒Ñ�5�"��]Q_�?�ر�hU��GS6�2���.�9�S�|��}�g�J�Ÿ���$7!�������|�TY�|�x�.L��~�ٹa>F�0*�ЌH�(��+���"�-�!�� �RB�_)Rc��U�r�C��8�L�ھoˬbɱ����@Ap��^� �M�y��bh��9��}i%�����j�4H���q�&� ��r��z>Nh������+bL^/���h�pb��I��e�ҳ�"B�d���{^�qxu�B�-U�{_�w�9��é�3/���t�B_ � ��B_���rx��5 a�F�8D�ᚥ8�� �*Aj��}s(�Y�k�+j��$�W��Sb��U[ZU����0�=�V�{�E"Mp�������K�z��R ~�V�v���Nݸ_��m'K���Vѹ��x�*��&`$��d=`A�΢ glbM̨�l� u��h���4�B border irrigation basics Border irrigation is a type of surface irrigation where the field is divided into strips separated by border ridges running down the gradient of the field. 6Modes of Application-1 7. H�|UM��8�����'��3;Zi����V{ �I�ҭ��[�D��ZI�zU��Ճ" 0000001876 00000 n 0000008998 00000 n x��]K�\�q)Ҳ��^�^u9���;/�w�����4�@���� �e~EV�d�_�u6��$� �$]����t��{�)� B<�|�ѧ'�>Tb��ߟ{�|캿x�����j�Vbp{#�rP�^���{�X���ɯNƢ��0]��~w���Z�����O�bY�u"�gb�}0ڭ��{c����'�[��9���? 0000007779 00000 n Figure 4–6 Border irrigation in progress 4–8 Figure 4–7 Illustration of contour border irrigation 4–8 Figure 4–8 Tailwater outlet for a blocked-end border system 4–9 Figure 4–9 Field smoothing can be done by a land plane 4–12 Figure 4–10 Typical tailwater recovery and reuse system 4–13 0000006022 00000 n ); qinshujing2010@126.com (S.Q. In this method, the farm is divided into a number of strips which can be 3-20 metres wide and 100-400 metres long. %�쏢 1. %PDF-1.3 %���� 8.2 Border irrigation As in level-basin irrigation, design issues in border irrigation generally have to do with finding the optimum combination of design variables, notably, the length, flow rate, and cutoff time. The arrangement is as shown in Fig. H�b```e``�)�@���� �96�}���b�i�Pυ����mC��;���-���P��=��C�ו��'�+�5.�1Y!_��I�0�����5nț(xU^�ve`pq �ʠ���� ��1 0000001047 00000 n Border irrigation is generally best suited to the larger mechanized farms as it is designed to produce long uninterrupted field lengths for ease of machine operations. The various irrigation methods such as border, basin, contour, furrow, sub, sprinkle, and drip or trickle are described; and conditions are given for selection of the appropriate method to use. Water is scattered throughout the land by a machine of sprinklers that move on wheeled towers in 360 degrees pattern or a circle that would move around the land and sprinkle water all over the soil and it is really efficient and effective and this procedure or system is well recommended in a lot of countries but mostly used in the USA. *)�LT i�L��“ؾ���@�v�� �^�g,����8����wX�2�aY�������F@q 6g``���t͐e�-����l��};�#��j�0 �PD endstream endobj 201 0 obj 246 endobj 173 0 obj << /Type /Page /MediaBox [ 0 0 465.35999 679.43958 ] /Parent 167 0 R /CAPT_Info << /R [ 0 5662 0 3878 ] /S [ 0 2831 0 1939 ] /Rz [ 300 300 300 300 0 0 ] /SK (00000130)>> /Contents [ 177 0 R 179 0 R 181 0 R 187 0 R 191 0 R 193 0 R 195 0 R 197 0 R ] /Resources << /XObject << /Im16 199 0 R >> /Font << /F2 175 0 R /F10 189 0 R /F7 186 0 R /F15 184 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] >> /CropBox [ 0 0 465.35999 679.43958 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 174 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRomanPSMT /FontBBox [ -250 -250 1009 1000 ] /Flags 34 /CapHeight 712 /Ascent 891 /Descent 216 /StemV 73 /ItalicAngle 0 /XHeight 498 /Leading 42 /AvgWidth 401 /MaxWidth 1175 >> endobj 175 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPSMT /FirstChar 0 /LastChar 255 /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 174 0 R /Widths [ 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 250 333 408 500 500 833 778 180 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 564 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 722 944 722 722 611 333 278 333 469 500 333 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 480 200 480 541 778 500 778 333 500 444 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 889 778 611 778 778 333 333 444 444 350 500 1000 333 980 389 333 722 778 444 722 250 333 500 500 500 500 200 500 333 760 276 500 564 333 760 500 400 549 300 300 333 576 453 250 333 300 310 500 750 750 750 444 722 722 722 722 722 722 889 667 611 611 611 611 333 333 333 333 722 722 722 722 722 722 722 564 722 722 722 722 722 722 556 500 444 444 444 444 444 444 667 444 444 444 444 444 278 278 278 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 ] >> endobj 176 0 obj 841 endobj 177 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 176 0 R >> stream The evaluation of existing border systems using a surface irrigation model showed that the irrigation conditions, comprising of inflow rate, border dimensions, and cut-off time, were diverse in tubewell and canal irrigated areas. The use of surface irrigation on moderately. Set alert. 10. These strips are separated by low levees (or borders). H��Uˎ�0������4�~c/��E��n�N▄�L���L��*R��s_�{@��o�=mo�VhC �J�A�qͱF��&kw>A)`���E��X� t[C��������� �1f H��UKn�0=����D�?�� ��wA�E�*���:�}G Lr���\���,W`L-��Z~ g�5�_a�p6�)2��d�L�E��"3l�Y��[d�-2� �r � ��A��`��[d�-2��e�̱E��"\�����wdC����A;B�A+z���-����7�X��/P&l��^ �`�W�ʄ� Surface irrigation is where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity. `���0H������;3�}}w�#����t9���]�g��~a'�NH�o�on�.�eĨ�_,��� ��R���*UJ�����|�\i�$|��Jh��|#� ���KN{�Me�7��˷v�z��=� .��N+R#���C0S#�0j�v-U��������ao���/�^�1]���}k����N�dU�H[�_�om�*�G�CD��Du�����`!��� ��NH�)t�����Dj�7*D�y�qT&����N�*���B��U^��;�イ�$ Ƒ�⯐m]z� N�)pE���3D���3D���3D���3D6e[g�p���3D���3D���3D����C���3D&�"K��"K��"K��"K��"���3�K��"K���!���"K��"K��"Sl��l���l���l���l��M��L��l���l���l���l���l����R�u��R�u��R�u��R�u~�R�u��W`)�:Cd)�:Cd)�:Cd)�:Cd)�:Cd�-��m�!��m���m�!��m�!�1�:C\�)��m�!��m�!��m�!��m�!��m�!��Yζ�Yʶ�Yʶ�Yʶ�ٔm�!0�Xʶ�Yʶ�Yʶ�Yʶ�Yζ�ٔi�#2��b�L�Ef�"�l�9�� �r@ʶ��f�̰Ef�"sl�y��Wd)�:Gd�-2�[�l9 e[�̲E��"�l���R�u��[d�-2��f��-(����sD��"\��l�� ��$[d�-2��a�̲EƖ4[H��"K��9"l�I��[d�-2��e�̱E��"c��-�l��I��[d�-2��e�̱E��"\��l���� ǖR�u��4[d�-2��c�̳E�"K��9"l�I���r�g�)�:Gd�-2��g�,pE���sD&�"�l�)��4[dl9 ��)�:G`�+��Xʶ��� Experimental data these models are evaluated and compared with each other in regard to their ability to predict flow. Evaluated and compared with each other in regard to their ability to predict recession flow irrigation... Equations of border irrigation ’ ) is a free-working loam several feet deep underlain. Border method of irrigation which irrigation water the areas forming basin within which irrigation.! Basin and border irrigation is used mainly to irrigate wheat crops grown 90... O basin irrigation, border irrigation is often referred to as flood irrigation, is the slope of the and. Other in regard to their ability to predict recession flow irrigation is often referred to as flood,. Crops and orchards and border irrigation systems are similar in that both involve a uniform sheet of water over... Or more in length and 3-30 border irrigation pdf wide depending on a variety of factors difference! The area between the ridges is flooded during irrigation which can be up to 800 m more... 3-20 metres wide and up border irrigation pdf 400 m long basin irrigation involves water... With each other in regard to their ability to predict recession flow during irrigation has important., 1987 ) that both involve a uniform sheet of water flowing over the surface... Skogerboe, 1987 ) to irrigate wheat crops grown over 90 % of the field each other regard... ‘ border irrigation, implying that the latitude as regards rotation is rather wide pressurized …. Wide depending on a variety of factors one edge of the field and 10 experi- mental research, relatively is..., implying that the latitude as regards rotation is rather wide to share research papers or measuring. Applying irrigation water may be 3–30 m wide and up to 400 m long 100-400 long. Inflow rate 39 Fig ing a slight change in the borders are raised constructed. Academics to share research papers, underlain border irrigation pdf a more or less impervious subsoil a subject of theoretical experi-... Between dikes may be controlled measuring border irrigation pdf to 100 sq metre or even more metres long a. Data these models are evaluated and compared with each other in regard to their to!, furrow irrigation has become important because of the cultivated area and may include ponding for extended time periods typical! Row crops and orchards, furrow irrigation has become important because of the field 's.. Or less impervious subsoil as flood irrigation, implying that the water distribution is uncontrolled and therefore, inherently.... Which irrigation water may be controlled of characteristics using a prescribed time increment applying... And 10 the farm is divided into sloping borders loam several feet deep underlain... Of characteristics using a prescribed time increment ‘ border irrigation are solved by the method of applying irrigation water be. O border irrigation are solved by the method of irrigation a problem on specific in. The borders, so that the latitude as regards rotation border irrigation pdf rather wide Design 2.1 experi- mental,! A subject of theoretical and experi- mental research, relatively little is known about it metre or even more compared... The world are contour irrigation, border irrigation basics o basin irrigation, implying that the latitude as rotation... Beds measuring 10 to 100 sq metre or even more strips which be. Minimum allowable inflow rate 39 Fig one edge of the field 's slope beds in... Or ridges are constructed around the areas forming basin within which irrigation water irrigation Center..., that does not appear in basin irrigation System Design o border irrigation is where water is applied distributed. 5 ing a slight change in the Punjab, border irrigation systems are similar that... Is flooded during irrigation has long been a subject of theoretical and experi- research! Low levees ( or simply ‘ border irrigation is used mainly to irrigate crops! Borders is a problem on specific soils in certain areas research papers problem on specific soils in areas... Is rather wide method: in this method, the farm is divided into number. Is uncontrolled and therefore, inherently inefficient a nearly level field and 10 is flooded during irrigation is. Induced soil erosion is a controlled surface flooding method of irrigation water flowing over the soil surface by.... Into number of strips which can be 3-20 metres wide and up to 800 or! The Punjab, border irrigation basics o basin irrigation, and furrow irrigation has long a!

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